350kb - 350kb is the size of the Service file that's downloaded
during a remote support session. Short for kilobyte, kb represents 1,000 bytes when used to
describe data transfer rates. A true 56kbps (kilobytes per second) dial-up connection would require
approximately 6 to 7 seconds to download the file. Broadband or DSL connections generally
require far less time.
firewall - A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or
from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination
of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private
networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the
intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet
the specified security criteria.
There are several types of firewall techniques:
Packet filter: Looks at each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. In addition, it is susceptible to IP spoofing.
Application gateway: Applies security mechanisms to specific applications, such as FTP and Telnet servers. This is very effective, but can impose a performance degradation.
Circuit-level gateway: Applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking.
Proxy server: Intercepts all messages entering and leaving the network. The proxy server effectively hides the true network addresses.
In practice, many firewalls use two or more of these techniques in concert.
A firewall is considered a first line of defense in protecting private information. For greater security, data can be encrypted
NAT - Short for Network Address Translation, an Internet standard that enables
a local-area network (LAN) to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second set of addresses
for external traffic. A NAT box located where the LAN meets the Internet makes all necessary IP address translations.
NAT serves three main purposes:
Provides a type of firewall by hiding internal IP addresses
Enables a company to use more internal IP addresses. Since they're used internally only, there's no possibility of conflict with IP addresses used by other companies and organizations.
Allows a company to combine multiple ISDN connections into a single Internet connection.
router - A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to
at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISPís network. Routers are located at gateways,
the places where two or more networks connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best
path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure
the best route between any two hosts.
Very little filtering of data is done through routers.
Safe Mode - A specific way for the Windows operating system to load when there
is a system-critical problem interfering with the normal operation of Windows. Safe Mode allows the user to
troubleshoot the operating system to determine what is not functioning properly. For example, adding new software
or drivers for a hardware device to the system can cause conflicts with existing programs. Safe mode is a way to
find out what the problem is.
In safe mode, the only startup programs that are loaded are the operating system and drivers for the mouse, keyboard and standard VGA display modes. Safe mode does not run the autoexec.bat or config.sys files. The main portion of the Registry is not loaded. Himem.sys, which is normally loaded as part of the config.sys script, is loaded with the /testmem:on switch, which tells the computer to test the extended memory before continuing. Windows also boots using a batch file called system.cb instead of the standard system.ini file while in safe mode.
ASP - Application Service Provider, abbreviated as ASP, a third-party entity that manages
and distributes software-based services and solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data
In essence, ASPs are a way for companies to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs. They may be commercial ventures that cater to customers, or not-for-profit or government organizations, providing service and support to end users.
ASPs are broken down into five subcategories:
Enterprise ASPs -- deliver high-end business applications.
Local/Regional ASPs -- supply wide variety of application services for smaller businesses in a local area.
Specialist ASPs -- provide applications for a specific need, such as Web site services or human resources.
Vertical Market ASPs -- provide support to a specific industry, such as healthcare.
Volume Business ASPs -- supply general small/medium-sized businesses with prepackaged application services in volume.
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